Klett-Cotta-Verlag Psychology
Wissenschaft

Klassifikation und Diagnostik der Posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung im Kindes- und Jugendalter


Februar 2019, 13. Jahrgang, Heft 1, pp 40-51

DOI 10.21706/tg-13-1-40



Zusammenfassung
Der vorliegende Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der Klassifikation und Diagnostik der Posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung (PTBS) im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Zunächst werden die aktuellen diagnostischen Kriterien der PTBS nach ICD-11 und DSM-5 beschrieben sowie aktuelle Prävalenzraten von potentiell traumatischen Ereignissen und PTBS bei Kindern und Jugendlichen berichtet. Klinische Besonderheiten im Symptombild bei Vorschulkindern, Schulkindern und Adoleszenten werden nach Altersgruppen getrennt vorgestellt. Anschließend wird die Diagnostik der PTBS bei Kindern und Jugendlichen anhand von Fragebogen-Verfahren und klinischen Interviews dargestellt. Im letzten Teil werden Empfehlungen zur Durchführung der Diagnostik gegeben, mit dem Fokus auf dem Einsatz von Selbst- und Fremdbeurteilungsinstrumenten, Diagnostik bei jungen Kindern sowie Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund.

Abstract
Classification and Assessment of PTSD in Children and Adolescents
This article discusses the classification and assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents. The current diagnostic criteria for PTSD as set out in ICD-11 and DSM-5 are discussed alongside the prevalence rates of potentially traumatic events and PTSD in children and adolescents. Clinical aspects of PTSD in pre-school children, school-age children and adolescents are presented. Subsequently, the authors discuss the clinical assessment of PTSD in children and adolescents via questionnaires and standardized clinical interviews. The last section includes recommendations on performing a diagnostic assessment, with special reference to self- and caregivers’ reports, young children, and children/adolescents with a migration background.

Schlüsselwörter
PTBS; Trauma; Frage­bogen; Interview; ICD-11; DSM-5
mots-clés
mots-clés non définis
  1. Alisic, E., Zalta, A. K., Van Wesel, F., Larsen, S. E., Hafstad, G. S., Hassanpour, K. & Smid, G. E. (2014). Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed children and adolescents: Meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 204(5), 335 – 340.  DOI 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.131227 .
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.  DOI 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596 .
  3. Copeland, W. E., Keeler, G., Angold, A. & Costello, E. J. (2007). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(5), 577 – 584.
  4. de Haan, A., Petermann, F., Meiser-Stedman, R. & Goldbeck, L. (2016). Psychometric properties of the German version of the child post-traumatic cognitions inventory (CPTCI-GER). Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 47(1), 151 – 158.  DOI 10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.577 .
  5. Essau, C., Conradt, J. & Petermann, F. (1999). Häufigkeit der Posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung bei Jugendlichen: Ergebnisse der Bremer Jugendstudie. Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 27(1), 37 – 45.  DOI 10.1024//1422-4917.27.1.37 .
  6. Foa, E. B., Asnaani, A., Zang, Y., Capaldi, S. & Yeh, R. (2018). Psychometrics of the child PTSD symptom scale for DSM-5 for trauma-exposed children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(1), 38 – 46.  DOI 10.1080/15374416.2017.1350962 .
  7. Foa, E. B., Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M., Tolin, D. F. & Orsillo, S. M. (1999). The posttraumatic cognitions inventory (PTCI): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 11(3), 303.  DOI 10.1037/1040-3590.11.3.303 .
  8. Foa, E. B., Johnson, K. M., Feeny, N. C. & Treadwell, K. R. (2001). The child PTSD symptom scale: A preliminary examination of its psychometric properties. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 30(3), 376 – 384.  DOI 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3003_9 .
  9. Friedman, M. J. (2013). Finalizing PTSD in DSM-5: Getting here from there and where to go next. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(5), 548 – 556.  DOI 10.1002/jts.21840 .
  10. Gadeberg, A. K., Montgomery, E., Frederiksen, H. & Norredam, M. (2017). Assessing trauma and mental health in refugee children and youth: A systematic review of validated screening and measurement tools. European Journal of Public Health, 27(3), 439 – 446.  DOI 10.1093/eurpub/ckx034 .
  11. Grasso, D. J., Felton, J. W. & Reid-Quiñones, K. (2015). The structured trauma-related experiences and symptoms screener (STRESS) development and preliminary psychometrics. Child Maltreatment, 20(3), 214 – 220.  DOI 10.1177/1077559515588131 .
  12. Haag, A.-C. & Landolt, M. A. (2014). German version of the diagnostic infant and preschool assessment (DSM-5 version). Zürich: University of Zürich.
  13. Jaffe, A. E., DiLillo, D., Hoffman, L., Haikalis, M. & Dykstra, R. E. (2015). Does it hurt to ask? A meta-analysis of participant reactions to trauma research. Clinical Psychology Review, 40, 40 – 56.  DOI 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.05.004 .
  14. Keane, T. M. & Kaloupek, D. G. (1997). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in PTSD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821(1), 24 – 34.  DOI 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb48266.x .
  15. Kingston, S. & Raghavan, C. (2009). The relationship of sexual abuse, early initiation of substance use, and adolescent trauma to PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 22(1), 65 – 68.  DOI 10.1002/jts.20381 .
  16. Klein, S. & Alexander, D. A. (2009). Epidemiology and presentation of post-traumatic disorders. Psychiatry, 8(8), 282 – 287.  DOI 10.1016/j.mppsy.2009.05.001 .
  17. Landolt, M. A. (2009). Posttraumatische Belastungsstörung. In S. Schneider & J. Margraf (Hrsg.), Lehrbuch der Verhaltenstherapie–Band 3: Verhaltenstherapie: Störungen des Kindes- und Jugendalters (S. 609 – 628). Berlin: Springer.  DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-79545-2_35 .
  18. Landolt, M. A. (2014). UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for Children/Adolescents: DSM 5 (german version). Universitäts-Kinderspital Zürich.
  19. Landolt, M. A. & Haag, A.-C. (2014). German version of the young child PTSD checklist. Zürich: University of Zürich.
  20. Landolt, M. A., Schnyder, U., Maier, T., Schoenbucher, V. & Mohler-Kuo, M. (2013). Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents: A national survey in switzerland. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(2), 209 – 216.  DOI 10.1002/jts.21794 .
  21. Lang, J. M. & Connell, C. M. (2017). Development and validation of a brief trauma screening measure for children: The child trauma screen. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(3), 390 – 399.  DOI 10.1037/tra0000235 .
  22. Maercker, A. (2013). Symptomatik, Klassifikation und Epidemiologie. In A. Maercker (Ed.), Posttraumatische Belastungsstörungen (4th ed., S. 13 – 34). Berlin: Springer.  DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-35068-9_2 .
  23. Maercker, A., Brewin, C. R., Bryant, R. A., Cloitre, M., van Ommeren, M., Jones, L. M., … Rousseau, C. (2013). Diagnosis and classification of disorders specifically associated with stress: Proposals for ICD-11. World Psychiatry, 12(3), 198 – 206.  DOI 10.1002/wps.20057 .
  24. Meiser-Stedman, R., Smith, P., Bryant, R., Salmon, K., Yule, W., Dalgleish, T. & Nixon, R. D. (2009). Development and validation of the child post-traumatic cognitions inventory (CPTCI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(4), 432 – 440.  DOI 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01995.x .
  25. Meiser-Stedman, R., Smith, P., Glucksman, E., Yule, W. & Dalgleish, T. (2008). The posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis in preschool-and elementary school-age children exposed to motor vehicle accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(10), 1326 – 1337.  DOI 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07081282 .
  26. Müller, J. M., Achtergarde, S. & Furniss, T. (2011). The influence of maternal psychopathology on ratings of child psychiatric symptoms: An SEM analysis on cross-informant agreement. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 20(5), 241 – 252.  DOI 10.1007/s00787-011-0168-2 .
  27. Norris, F. H. (1992). Epidemiology of trauma: Frequency and impact of different potentially traumatic events on different demographic groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(3), 409 – 418.  DOI 10.1037/0022-006X.60.3.409 .
  28. Perkonigg, A., Kessler, R. C., Storz, S. & Wittchen, H. (2000). Traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the community: Prevalence, risk factors and comorbidity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 101(1), 46 – 59.  DOI 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2000.101001046.x .
  29. Pfeiffer, E., Sachser, C. & Goldbeck, L. (2017). Posttraumatische Belastungs-Störungen im Kindes-und Jugendalter erkennen und behandeln. Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, 17(01), 27 – 31.  DOI 10.1055/s-0038-1629399 .
  30. Pfeiffer, E., Sachser, C., Rohlmann, F. & Goldbeck, L. (2018). Effectiveness of a trauma-focused group intervention for young refugees: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.  DOI 10.1111/jcpp.12908 .
  31. Pynoos, R. S. & Steinberg, A. M. (2013). UCLA PTSD reaction index for children/adolescents–DSM-5. Los Angeles, CA: University of California.
  32. Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., Layne, C. M., Briggs, E. C., Ostrowski, S. A. & Fairbank, J. A. (2009). DSM-V PTSD diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents: A developmental perspective and recommendations. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(5), 391 – 398.  DOI 10.1002/jts.20450 .
  33. Pynoos, R. S., Weathers, F. W., Steinberg, A. M., Marx, B. P., Layne, C. M., Kaloupek, D. G. & Kriegler, J. A. (2015). Clinician-administered PTSD scale for DSM-5 Child/Adolescent version. Retrieved from the National Center for PTSD. Retrieved from www.Ptsd.Va.Gov.
  34. Querido, J. G., Eyberg, S. M. & Boggs, S. R. (2001). Revisiting the accuracy hypothesis in families of young children with conduct problems. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(2), 253 – 261.  DOI 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3002_12 .
  35. Rassenhofer, M., Fegert, J. M., Plener, P. L. & Witt, A. (2016). Validierte Verfahren zur psychologischen Diagnostik unbegleiteter minderjähriger Flüchtlinge – Eine systematische Übersicht. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 65(2), 97 – 112.  DOI 10.13109/prkk.2016.65.2.97 .
  36. Rosner, R. & Hagl, M. (2008). Posttraumatische Belastungsstörung. Kindheit und Entwicklung, 17(4), 205 – 209.  DOI 10.1026/0942-5403.17.4.205 .
  37. Sachser, C., Berliner, L., Holt, T., Jensen, T. K., Jungbluth, N., Risch, E., … Goldbeck, L. (2017). International development and psychometric properties of the child and adolescent trauma screen (CATS). Journal of Affective Disorders, 210, 189 – 195.  DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.040 .
  38. Sachser, C., Berliner, L., Holt, T., Jensen, T., Jungbluth, N., Risch, E., … Goldbeck, L. (2018). Comparing the dimensional structure and diagnostic algorithms between DSM-5 and ICD-11 PTSD in children and adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(2), 181 – 190.  DOI 10.1007/s00787-017-1032-9 .
  39. Sachser, C. & Goldbeck, L. (2016). Consequences of the diagnostic criteria proposed for the ICD-11 on the prevalence of PTSD in children and adolescents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 29(2), 120 – 123.  DOI 10.1002/jts.22080 .
  40. Salmon, K. & Bryant, R. A. (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder in children: The influence of developmental factors. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(2), 163 – 188.  DOI 10.1016/S0272-7358(01)00086-1 .
  41. Scheeringa, M. S. (2013). Young child PTSD checklist. Updated version. New Orleans: Tulane University School of Medicine.
  42. Scheeringa, M. S. & Haslett, N. (2010). The reliability and criterion validity of the diagnostic infant and preschool assessment: A new diagnostic instrument for young children. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 41(3), 299 – 312.  DOI 10.1007/s10578-009-0169-2 .
  43. Scheeringa, M. S., Myers, L., Putnam, F. W. & Zeanah, C. H. (2012). Diagnosing PTSD in early childhood: An empirical assessment of four approaches. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(4), 359 – 367.  DOI 10.1002/jts.21723 .
  44. Scheeringa, M. S., Weems, C. F., Cohen, J. A., Amaya-Jackson, L. & Guthrie, D. (2011). Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in three-through six year-old children: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(8), 853 – 860.  DOI 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02354.x .
  45. Scheeringa, M. S., Wright, M. J., Hunt, J. P. & Zeanah, C. H. (2006). Factors affecting the diagnosis and prediction of PTSD symptomatology in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), 644 – 651.  DOI 10.1176/ajp.2006.163.4.644 .
  46. Scheeringa, M. S. & Zeanah, C. H. (2008). Reconsideration of harm’s way: Onsets and comorbidity patterns of disorders in preschool children and their caregivers following hurricane katrina. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(3), 508 – 518.  DOI 10.1080/15374410802148178 .
  47. Scheeringa, M. S., Zeanah, C. H., Drell, M. J. & Larrieu, J. A. (1995). Two approaches to the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder in infancy and early childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(2), 191 – 200.  DOI 10.1097/00004583-199502000-00014 .
  48. Schmid, M., Petermann, F. & Fegert, J. M. (2013). Developmental trauma disorder: Pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 3.  DOI 10.1186/1471-244X-13-3 .
  49. Steil, R. & Füchsel, G. (2006). Interviews zu Belastungsstörungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen (IBS-KJ): Diagnostik der akuten und der Posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  50. Steil, R. & Rosner, R. (2013). Posttraumatische Belastungsstörung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. In A. Maercker (Ed.), Posttraumatische Belastungsstörungen (4th ed., S. 351 – 376). Berlin: Springer.  DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-35068-9_19 .
  51. Steinberg, A. M., Brymer, M. J., Kim, S., Briggs, E. C., Ippen, C. G., Ostrowski, S. A., … & Pynoos, R. S. (2013). Psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD reaction index: part I. Journal of traumatic stress, 26(1), 1 – 9.  DOI 10.1002/jts.21780 .
  52. Terr, L. C. (1981). Psychic trauma in children: Observations following the chowchilla school-bus kidnapping. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 138(1), 14 – 19.  DOI 10.1176/ajp.138.1.14 .
  53. Vasileva, M., Haag, A.-C., Landolt, M. A. & Petermann, F. (2018). Posttraumatic stress disorder in very young children: Diagnostic agreement between ICD-11 and DSM-5. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(4), 529 – 539.  DOI 10.1002/jts.22314 .
  54. Weber, D. A. & Reynolds, C. R. (2004). Clinical perspectives on neurobiological effects of psychological trauma. Neuropsychology Review, 14(2), 115 – 129.  DOI 10.1023/B:NERV.0000028082.13778.14 .
  55. Yule, W., Udwin, O. & Murdoch, K. (1990). The ›Jupiter‹sinking: Effects on children’s fears, depression and anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31(7), 1051 – 1061.  DOI 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1990.tb00845.x .


Kopieren Sie diesen Link:

https://doi.org/10.21706/tg-13-1-40

 Lesezeichen hinzufügen