Klett-Cotta-Verlag Psychology
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Akustische Halluzinationen bei Patienten mit Schizophrenie-Spektrums-Störungen

Unterschiede der Phänomenologie in Abhängigkeit von Gewalterfahrung in der Kindheit


August 2017, 11. Jahrgang, Heft 3, pp 196-205

DOI 10.21706/tg-11-3-196



Zusammenfassung
Es gibt Hinweise, dass sich die Psychopathologie von psychotischen Patienten mit und ohne Traumatisierungen unterscheidet. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es deshalb, Unterschiede in Bezug auf Stimmenphänomene bei N = 111 Patienten mit Schizophrenie-Spektrum-Störung mit und ohne frühe Gewalterfahrungen zu untersuchen. Die Patienten wurden mithilfe des Strukturierten Traumainterviews in eine Gruppe mit Gewalterfahrungen vor dem 16. Lebensjahr und eine Gruppe ohne solche Gewalterfahrungen eingeteilt. Akustische verbale Halluzinationen wurden mithilfe einer modifizierten Version des Maastricht Interview for Voice Hearers erhoben. Die Gruppe mit Gewalterfahrungen empfanden Stimmenphänomene signifikant häufiger als »nicht unterscheidbar von den eigenen Gedanken« (67 % vs. 29 %), empfanden sich signifikant häufiger als »machtlos« gegenüber ihren Stimmen (100 % vs. 78 %) und hatten signifikant häufiger Stimmen mit ausschließlich negativem Charakter (85 % vs. 51 %). Unsere Ergebnisse unterstützen die Annahme, dass bestimmte psychotische Symptome Teil eines Reaktionsspektrums auf traumatische Lebensereignisse bilden könnten. Stimmenphänomene mit den oben genannten Charakteristika sollten für eine etwaige Trauma-Anamnese sensibilisieren, insbesondere da inzwischen spezielle Therapieansätze für Betroffene vorliegen.

Abstract
Differences in the phenomenology of verbal acoustic hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders with and without exposure to violence in childhood
There is evidence on relationships between a history of trauma and the quality of symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine differences with regard to the quality of auditory verbal hallucinations in N = 111 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with and without childhood abuse. The Structured Trauma Interview was used to determine exposure to violence before the age of 16. Auditory verbal hallucinations were evaluated using a modified version of the Maastricht Interview for Voice Hearers. The group with exposure to violence perceived the voices significantly more often as »indistinguishable from their own thoughts« (67 % vs. 29 %), they felt significantly more often »powerless« towards their voices (100 % vs. 78 %) and had significantly more often voices with a negative character (85 % vs. 51 %). Our results support the assumption that certain psychotic symptoms might be part of a spectrum of reactions to traumatic life events. Voices with the characteristics mentioned above should sensitize for a potential history of trauma, given the fact that tailored therapeutic approaches for the patients concerned have been made available.

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